What is the first step of excavation?

Step 1: Context – Create a grid on the surface area of the site using a ruler, string, and stakes (to anchor string). Step 2: Dig – Be careful not to damage anything that is uncovered. At this time do not remove any artifacts or eco-facts. Begin by carefully brushing away soil from items.

What are the steps for excavation?

The excavation process includes:

  1. setting corner benchmarks.
  2. surveying ground and top levels.
  3. excavation to the approved depth.
  4. dressing the loose soil.
  5. marking up the cut off level.
  6. the construction of dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches.
  7. marking the boundaries of the building.
  8. the construction of protection drains.

What are the 3 types of excavation?

Types of Excavation

  • Earth excavation is removal of the layer of soil immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock. …
  • Muck excavation is removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil. …
  • Unclassified excavation is removal of any combination of topsoil, earth, rock, and muck.

What is excavation answer?

Excavation is the act or process of digging, especially when something specific is being removed from the ground. Archaeologists use excavation to find artifacts and fossils. There are many types of excavation, but they all involve digging holes in the earth.

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What is the next step after excavation?

After excavation, layout the foundation and backfill the remaining excavated area around foundation with soil. Floor levels of residential buildings are higher than the natural ground level. Fill the area with soil up to floor levels and compact the soil. Now earth work of residential building is finished.

What are the type of excavation?

Excavation by Material

  • Topsoil Excavation. As the name suggests, this type of excavation involves the removal of the exposed or the topmost area of the earth’s surface. …
  • Rock Excavation. …
  • Muck Excavation. …
  • Earth Excavation. …
  • Cut and Fill Excavation. …
  • Trench Excavation. …
  • Basement Excavation. …
  • Dredging.

What is structural excavation?

Structure Excavation means the excavation of on-Site soil materials including trenching required by the Contract Documents to demolish and remove an existing structure or to construct a new structure.

What are the different classes of excavation?

201.01.01 Classification

CLASS 1 — All excavation where the width of the bottom of the cut is 15 ft or more. CLASS 1-A — All excavation of unsuitable material below the lowest excavation limits established. CLASS 2 — All excavation where the width of the bottom of the cut is less than 15 ft.

What is excavation 8th standard?

excavation, in archaeology, the exposure, recording, and recovery of buried material remains. … Excavations can be classified, from the point of view of their purpose, as planned, rescue, or accidental.

Where was the first excavation conducted?

The first instance of archaeological excavation took place in the sixth century BC, when Nabonidus, the king of Babylon excavated a temple floor that was thousands of years old.

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What site did the first excavation begin in India?

The Harappa site was first briefly excavated by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1872-73, two decades after brick robbers carried off the visible remains of the city. He found an Indus seal of unknown origin. The first extensive excavations at Harappa were started by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920.